ENASE 2015 Abstracts


Area 1 - Mobile Software and Systems

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Mobile App Usability Index (MAUI) for Improving Mobile Banking Adoption

Authors:

Lalit Mohan, Neeraj Mathur and Y. Raghu Reddy

Abstract: India has 790+ million active mobile connections and 80.57 million smartphone users. However, as per Reserve Bank of India, the number of transactions performed using smartphone based mobile banking applicationsis less than 12% of the overall banking transactions. One of the major reasons for such low numbers is the usability of the mobile banking app. In this paper, we focus on usability issues related tomobile banking apps and propose a Mobile App Usability Index (MAUI) for enhancing the usability of a mobile banking app. The proposed Index has been validatedwith mobile banking channel managers, chief information security officers, etc.

Area 2 - Service Science and Business Information Systems

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 22
Title:

Software Engineering Standards and Guides for Very Small Entities - Implementation in Two Start-ups

Authors:

Claude Y. Laporte, Rory V. O'Connor and Luis Hernán García Paucar

Abstract: Very small entities, enterprises, organizations, projects or departments with up to 25 people, are very important to the worldwide economy. However it has ben established that such entities often do not utilize existing standards and frameworks. To address the needs of Very Small Entities (VSEs), a set of international standards and guides known as ISO/IEC 29110 has been developed. In this paper we present the results of early trials of this standard in two IT start-ups VSEs. A Peruvian VSE was recently audited and issued an ISO/IEC 29110 certificate of conformity.

Area 3 - Mobile Software and Systems

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 36
Title:

Real-time Cargo Volume Recognition using Internet-connected 3D Scanners

Authors:

Felix Föcker, Adrian Neubauer, Andreas Metzger, Gerd Gröner and Klaus Pohl

Abstract: Transport and logistics faces fluctuations in cargo volume that statistically can only be captured with a large error. Observing and managing such dynamic volume fluctuations more effectively promises many benefits such as reducing unused transport capacity and ensuring timely delivery of cargo. This paper introduces an approach that combines user-friendly mobile devices with internet-connected sensors to deliver up-to-date, timely, and precise information about parcel volumes inside containers. In particular, we present (1) RCM, a mobile app for unique identification of containers, and (2) SNAP, a novel approach for employing internet connected low-cost, off-the-shelf 3D scanners for capturing and analyzing actual cargo volumes. We have evaluated the accuracy of SNAP in controlled experiments indicating that cargo volume can be measured with high accuracy. We have further evaluated RCM together with SNAP by means of a survey study with domain experts, revealing its high potential for practical use.

Area 4 - Service Science and Business Information Systems

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 38
Title:

A Simple Erlang API for Handling DDS Data Types and Quality of Service Parameters

Authors:

Wafa Helali, Khaled Barbaria and Belhassen Zouari

Abstract: The choice of the programming language impacts the efficiency of the application and the robustness of the code. The characteristics of Erlang as a functional programming language supported distributed real time computing allowed us to propose eDDS: an Erlang based middleware compliant to the Data Distribution Service (DDS) standard that providing a strong Quality of Service (QoS) support. When the performance and the compliance to the norm have been easy achieved in particular on defining and setting QoS parameters, the lack of efficient and user-friendly support for data type management has been noticed. In this paper, we will explain this type checking problem and how we solved it.

Area 5 - Mobile Software and Systems

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 51
Title:

Towards a Model-based Toolchain for Remote Configuration and Maintenance of Space-aware Systems

Authors:

Jan Olaf Blech, Peter Herrmann, Ian Peake and Heinz Schmidt

Abstract: We present work towards a toolchain that combines our existing tools Reactive Blocks and BeSpaceD with our remote collaboration and visualization facility VxLab. Software development in areas such as oil and gas, mining or automation is subject to remote configuration and maintenance of installations. Different reasons are driving this trend including difficult accessibility of remote sites and outsourcing to offsite experts or due to cheaper labor costs. Here, we concentrate on work towards remote configuration, installation and maintenance of the software controlling these installations and their spatial constraints.

Area 6 - Service Science and Business Information Systems

Posters
Paper Nr: 47
Title:

A Survey of Cloud Computing Variable Pricing Models

Authors:

Sahar Arshad, Saeed Ullah, Shoab Ahmed Khan, M. Daud Awan and M. Sikandar Hayat Khayal

Abstract: Cloud computing has grasped the attention of scientific community and business industry towards the provisioning of computing resources as utility and software as a service over a network. Profitability and revenue maximization are the most important goals for any cloud service provider which can be employed through different pricing models. Historically, cloud providers were following the fixed pricing strategies while provisioning their services to the clients. However, these approaches have their own shortcomings resulting in resource wastage, lack of fairness and user satisfaction. With expansion of cloud users in market every day, provisioning of fair resource allocation with service differentiation and efficient pricing model is demand seeking, resulting in a shift from static to dynamic pricing models. In this paper, we discuss and investigate different pricing scheme with respect to their advantages, limitations and possible future directions. The study will open a way for vendors to seek new research directions in dynamic pricing schemes.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

Workflow Optimization through Business Reengineering for Tele-cardiac System

Authors:

Farkhanda Rasheed and Shoab Ahmad Khan

Abstract: Today’s third largest industry is healthcare sector. This care sector is in trouble in many ways such as “extra-long waiting time, high expenses on medical and delivery error removal cost and insufficient access of client to important information”. Business process re-engineering helps manager in health department to discover best ways to produce better results without having any effect on quality. Business process reengineering recovers the procedures of the business process including its improvement. Workflow Reengineering Methodology is a form of Business Process Reengineering which has upgrading capability starting from need identification to execution. It also has ability of maintenance of workflow. It means that much benefit can be attained by consolidating existing task rather than focusing on previous task. It is optimized that how to re-engineer task by using workflow reengineering methodology in order to reduce time and cost for best quality. Here we present a case study of cardiology hospital, which is a tertiary care corporate hospital of Rawalpindi “Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases” (AFIC-NIHD). We will show how workflow can be optimized through re-engineering methodology in Tele Cardiac system.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

Intelligent Broker - A Knowledge based Approach for Semantic Web Services Discovery

Authors:

Mohamed El Kholy and Ahmed Elfatatry

Abstract: Ever since the introduction of the service oriented model of computing (SOA), service discovery has been the major research challenge in SOA. Service consumers usually prefer to express their requirements informally. Expressing requirements in such a way leads to difficulties in the matching procedure, and hence results in poor matching results. In this paper, we present the concept of multi-level search as a solution for matching informal expression of user requirements. In the suggested approach, intermediate brokers receive service requests and suggest suitable services that match the given requests. We present a mechanism by which an intelligent broker utilizes a knowledge based system to overcome the drawbacks of syntactic and semantic discovery. The intelligent broker receives informal user requirements and performs multi-level search. The search starts with key word search, then meaning search, and finally expert search. If the keyword search fails to produce a proper matching, then, the search progresses to the following levels: semantic, and then intelligent search. In this paper we argue that multi-level search could revive the dream of automatic service discovery and present a detailed model for implementation.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

Toward a Model of Computation for Time-constrained Applications on Manycores

Authors:

Stephane Louise

Abstract: As computing systems are transitioning from multicores to manycores with the increasing number of computing resources available on modern chips, we can notice a lack of a universal programming model for these new platforms and the challenges they convey. Ideally speaking, a program should be written only once, and making it run on a given target would be the role of the compilation tools. But before addressing this problem, we need a good Model of Computation (MoC) as a base for both programming and compilation tools. In this paper we propose to share our insights on the properties such a MoC should possess. It would take the CycloStatic DataFlow (CSDF) MoC for its good properties, and extend it to overcome its limitations while retaining its good properties.

Area 7 - Software Engineering

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 12
Title:

Computing Attributes of Software Architectures - A Static Method and Its Validation

Authors:

Imen Derbel, Lamia Labed Jilani and Ali Mili

Abstract: During the last two past decades, software architecture has been a rising subject of software engineering. Since, researchers and practitioners have recognized that analyzing the architecture of a software system is an important part of the software development process. Architectural evaluation not only reduces software development efforts and costs but it also enhances the quality of the software by verifying the addressability of quality requirements and identifying potential risks. To this aim, several approaches have been recently proposed to analyze system non-functional attributes from its software architecture specification. In this paper, we propose an ADL based formal method for representing and reasoning about system nonfunctional attributes at the architectural level. We are especially interested in analyzing performance and reliability quality attributes. We also propose to analyze the sensitivity of the system by identifying components that have the greatest impact on the system quality. The automation of our model was followed by a series of experiments that allowed us to validate our inductive reasoning to prove the capabilities of our model to represent and analyze software architectures.

Paper Nr: 13
Title:

Cost-effective Functional Testing of Reactive Software

Authors:

R. Venkatesh, Ulka Shrotri, Amey Zare and Supriya Agrawal

Abstract: Creating test cases to cover all functional requirements of real-world systems is hard, even for domain experts. Any method to generate functional test cases must have three attributes: (a) an easy-to-use formal notation to specify requirements, from a practitioner’s point of view, (b) a scalable test-generation algorithm, and (c) coverage criteria that map to requirements. In this paper we present a method that has all these attributes. First, it includes Expressive Decision Table (EDT), a requirement specification notation designed to reduce translation efforts. Second, it implements a novel scalable row-guided random algorithm with fuzzing (RGRaF)(pronounced R-graph) to generate test cases. Finally, it implements two new coverage criteria targeted at requirements and requirement interactions. To evaluate our method, we conducted experiments on three real-world applications. In these experiments, RGRaF achieved better coverage than pure random test case generation. When compared with manual approach, our test cases subsumed all manual test cases and achieved up to 60% effort savings. More importantly, our test cases, when run on code, uncovered a bug in a post-production sub-system and captured three missing requirements in another.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Identifying Quality Characteristic Interactions during Software Development

Authors:

Gabriel Alberto García-Mireles, Ma Ángeles Moraga de la Rubia, Félix García and Mario Piattini

Abstract: Quality demands on current and future software systems need to address diverse quality characteristics considered important for the diversity of stakeholders. Dealing with software quality may require achieving a balance between relevant quality characteristics. Current literature shows that software organizations barely handle them. However, the lack of management of these interactions may be a causal factor in failed projects. In this paper, we present a process for monitoring interactions between quality requirements based on an interaction model of quality characteristics. This process is part of the SQIMF framework and supports the identification and characterization of the interactions between quality requirements. An exploratory case study was conducted in order to understand the factors that could influence the interactions that occur.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Using Personality Traits and a Spatial Ability Test to Identify Talented Aspiring Designers in User-Centred Design Methodologies

Authors:

Farshid Anvari and Deborah Richards

Abstract: User-Centred Design (UCD) methodologies have been increasingly used during the past decade to develop software applications and products that are tailored to the needs of individuals and allow for human computer interactions on emotional and psychological levels. UCD designers and developers need to have special abilities and training to design products that meet the demands of users. This paper presents novel techniques to identify talented aspiring designers in UCD methodologies. Twenty-three undergraduate students, studying at a research-intensive metropolitan Australian university, participated in this study. Participants completed a spatial ability test, answered personality trait questionnaires and performed a design activity. Our results indicate that students who score high in the imagination personality factor and spatial ability tests are talented aspiring UCD designers. The implication of our study is that talented students who can design using UCD methodologies can be identified early in their studies and they can benefit by receiving advanced training. Likewise the less talented students can be given extra tutoring as abilities are not immutable and, interest and persistence is important in achieving expertise.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Consistency and Availability of Data in Replicated NoSQL Databases

Authors:

Tadeusz Pankowski

Abstract: Highly distributed NoSQL key-value databases have been designed to meet the needs of various applications in the field of social networks, Web search and e-commerce. High availability, fault tolerance and scalability (i.e. Quality of Service, QoS) of such systems is in conflict with the strong consistency (Quality of Data, QoD). Thus, a new functionality of services, balancing QoS and QoD, is needed. This functionality is referred as Service Level Agreements, SLA) (Terry et al., 2013). We present a system Lorq as a proposal of a solution to this problem. Lorq is a consensus quorum based algorithm for NoSQL data replication. In this paper, we discuss how different consistency levels are guaranteed by Lorq.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

A Defect Dependency based Approach to Improve Software Quality in Integrated Software Products

Authors:

Sai Anirudh Karre and Y. Raghu Reddy

Abstract: Integrated software products are complex in design. They are prone to defects caused by integrated and non-integrated modules of the entire integrated software suite. In such software products, a small proportion of defects are fixed as soon as they are reported. Rest of the defects are targeted for fixes in future product release cycles. Among such targeted defects, most of them seem to be insignificant and innocuous in the current version but have the potential to become acute in future versions. In this paper, we propose an approach to study defect dependency of the reported defect using a dependency metric. Identifying the dependency of a defect in an integrated product suite can help the product stake-owners to prioritize them and help improve software quality.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

Automatic Matching of Software Component Requirements using Semi-formal Specifications and a CBSE Ontology

Authors:

Andreas S. Andreou and Efi Papatheocharous

Abstract: One of the most significant tasks of component-based software development is concerned with finding suitable components for integration. This paper introduces a novel development framework that promotes reusability and focuses on assessing the suitability level of candidate components. A specifications profile is first created using a semi-formal natural language that describes the desired functional and non-functional properties of the component(s) sought. A parser automatically recognizes parts of the profile and translates them into instance values of a dedicated CBSE ontology, the latter addressing issues of components’ reusability. Available components on the market are also stored as instances of the CBSE ontology. Matching between required and offered component properties takes place automatically at the level of the ontology items and a suitability ratio is calculated that suggests which components to consider for integration.

Paper Nr: 61
Title:

Finding the Right Needles in Hay - Helping Program Comprehension of Large Software Systems

Authors:

Ioana Şora

Abstract: Maintenance of complex software systems can be done by software engineers only after they understand well the existing code. Program comprehension is supported by documentation - either developer documentation or reverse engineered. What is most often missing is a short document providing the new user with useful information to start with - an executive summary. In this work we propose a tool to automatically extract such a summary, by identifying the most important classes of a system. Our approach relies on techniques of static analysis of dependencies and graph-based ranking. Experiments on a set of real systems show good results.

Paper Nr: 63
Title:

A Case Study for Evaluating Bidirectional Transformations in QVT Relations

Authors:

Bernhard Westfechtel

Abstract: In model-driven software engineering, high-level models of a software system are eventually transformed into executable code. Model transformations constitute a key technology for model-driven software engineering. QVT Relations (QVT-R) is a language for the declarative specification of model transformations which was defined in an OMG (Object Management Group) standard. In addition to unidirectional transformations, QVT-R supports bidirectional transformations: Rather than writing two unidirectional transformations separately, the user may provide a single relational specification which may be executed in both directions. In this way, the specification of a bidirectional transformation may be simplified considerably — which is crucial e.g. for round-trip engineering. This paper investigates a case study for evaluating QVT-R’s capabilities for specifying bidirectional transformations. Even in this rather simple case study, development of a bidirectional transformation turns out to be more complex than expected. Motivated by the case study, we propose extensions to QVT-R which facilitate the specification of bidirectional transformations considerably.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 8
Title:

A Real-time Scheduling of Reconfigurable OS Tasks with a Bottom-up SPL Design Approach

Authors:

Hamza Gharsellaoui, Jihen Maazoun, Nadia Bouassida, Samir Ben Ahmed and Hanene Ben-Abdallah

Abstract: Several real-time embedded system must be dynamically reconfigured to account for hardware/software faults and/or maintain acceptable performances. Depending on the run-time environment, some reconfigurations might be unfeasible,i.e., they violate some real-time constraints of the system. In this paper, we deal with the development of dynamically reconfigurable embedded systems in terms of the production of execution schedules of system tasks (feasible configuration) under hard real-time constraints. More specifically, we propose an approach that starts from a set of reconfigurations to construct a Software Product Line that can be reused in a predictive and organized way to derive real-time embedded systems. To make sure that the SPL offers various feasible reconfigurations, we define an intelligent agent that automatically checks the system’s feasibility after a reconfiguration scenario is applied on a multiprocessor embedded system. This agent dynamically determines precious technical solutions to define a new product whenever a reconfiguration is unfeasible. The set of products thus defined by the agent can then be unified into an SPL. The originality of our approach is its capacity to extract, from the unfeasible configurations of an embedded system, an SPL design enriched with real-time constraints and modeled with a UML Marte profile. The SPL design can assist in the comprehension, reconfiguration as well as evolution of the SPL in order to satisfy real-time requirements and to obtain a feasible system under normal and overload conditions.

Paper Nr: 10
Title:

Constrained Agglomerative Hierarchical Software Clustering with Hard and Soft Constraints

Authors:

Chun Yong Chong and Sai Peck Lee

Abstract: Although agglomerative hierarchical software clustering technique has been widely used in reverse engineering to recover a high-level abstraction of the software in the case of limited resources, there is a lack of work in this research context to integrate the concept of pair-wise constraints, such as must-link and cannot-link constraints, to further improve the quality of clustering. Pair-wise constraints that are derived from experts or software developers, provide a means to indicate whether a pair of software components belongs to the same functional group. In this paper, a constrained agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is proposed to maximize the fulfilment of must-link and cannot-link constraints in a unique manner. Two experiments using real-world software systems are performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The result of evaluation shows that the proposed algorithm is capable of handling constraints to improve the quality of clustering, and ultimately provide a better understanding of the analyzed software system.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Simple, Not Simplistic - The Middleware of Behaviour Models

Authors:

Vladimir Estivill-Castro and René Hexel

Abstract: There are many areas where software components must interact witch each other and where middleware provides the appropriate benefits of robustness, decoupling, and modularisation. However, there is a potential performance overhead that, for autonomous robotic and embedded systems, may be critical. Proposals for robotic middleware continue to emerge, but surprisingly, they repeatedly follow the publish-subscriber model. There are several disadvantages to the push paradigm of the publisher-subscriber approach; in particular, its implication of a closer coupling where the subscriber must be active and able to keep up with the pace of events. We propose an alternative pull model, where consumers of messages handle information at their own time. We show that our proposal aligns with fundamental, time-triggered design principles, and produces simple module communication that reduces thread management and can enable rapid prototyping, validation, and formal verification.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

Software Cost Estimation for Global Software Development - A Systematic Map and Review Study

Authors:

Manal El Bajta, Ali Idri, José Luis Fernández-Alemán, Joaquin Nicolas Ros and Ambrosio Toval

Abstract: Software cost estimation plays a central role in the success of software project management in the context of global software development (GSD). The importance of mastering software cost estimation may appear to be obvious. However, as regards the issue of customer satisfaction, end-users are often unsatisfied with software project management results. In this paper, a systematic mapping study (SMS) is carried out with the aim of summarising software cost estimation in the context of GSD research by answering nine mapping questions. A total, of 16 articles were selected and classified according to nine criteria: publication source, publication year, research type, research approach, contribution type, software cost estimation techniques, software cost estimation activity, cost drivers and cost estimation performances for GSD projects. The results show that the interest in estimating software cost for GSD projects has increased in recent years and reveal that conferences are the most frequently targeted publications. Most software cost estimation for GSD research has focused on theory. The dominant contribution type of software cost estimation for GSD research is that of models, while the predominant activity was identified as being software development cost. Identifying empirical solutions to address software cost estimation for GSD is a promising direction for researchers.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

JETracer - A Framework for Java GUI Event Tracing

Authors:

Arthur-Jozsef Molnar

Abstract: The present paper introduces the open-source Java Event Tracer (JETracer) framework for real-time tracing of GUI events within applications based on the AWT, Swing or SWT graphical toolkits. Our framework provides a common event model for supported toolkits, the possibility of receiving GUI events in real-time, good performance in the case of complex target applications and the possibility of deployment over a network. The present paper provides the rationale for JETracer, presents related research and details its technical implementation. An empirical evaluation where JETracer is used to trace GUI events within five popular, open-source applications is also presented.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

A Systematic Method for Architecture Recovery

Authors:

Fritz Solms

Abstract: Software architecture recovery aims to reverse engineer a software architecture description from the system artifacts (e.g. source code) in order to facilitate software architecture analysis, improvement and control. Whilst there are a number of software architecture recovery methods, none of the current methods focus purely on those aspects of a system which address non-functional requirements. This paper introduces the Systematic Method for Software Architecture Recovery (SyMAR). SyMAR is an inspection method used to recover a software architecture description consistent with the view of a software architecture providing a specification of a software infrastructure addressing non-functional requirements within which application functionality addressing functional requirements can be deployed and executed. The method has been applied to a number of industrial architecture recovery projects. This paper discusses the experiences from these projects and illustrates the method using one of these projects as a case study.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

Stochastic Analogues of Invariants - Martingales in Stochastic Event-B

Authors:

Richard Banach

Abstract: In conventional formal model based development frameworks, invariants play a key role in controlling the behaviour of the model (when they contribute to the definition of the model) or in verifying the model’s properties (when the model, independently defined, is required to preserve the invariants). However, when variables take values distributed according to some probability distribution, the possibility of verifying that system behaviour is, in the long term, confined to some acceptable set of states can be severely diminished because the system might, in fact, with low probability fail to be thus confined. This short paper proposes martingales as suitable analogues of invariants for capturing suitable properties of non-terminating systems whose behaviour is with high probability good, yet where a small chance of poor behaviour remains. The idea is explored in the context of the well-known Event-B framework.

Paper Nr: 55
Title:

Detecting Feature Duplication in Natural Language Specifications when Evolving Software Product Lines

Authors:

Amal Khtira, Anissa Benlarabi and Bouchra El Asri

Abstract: Software product lines are dynamic systems that need to evolve continuously to meet new customer requirements. This evolution impacts both the core platform of the product line and its derived products. For several reasons, the most common way to express requirements by customers is natural language. However, the experience has shown that this communication channel does not give the possibility to detect system defects such as inconsistency and duplication. The objective of this paper is to propose a method to transform textual requirements into the XML format used by some Feature-oriented software development tools, in order to facilitate the detection of features duplication.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

Understanding Legacy Architecture Patterns

Authors:

Ricardo Pérez-Castillo, Benedikt Mas and Markus Pizka

Abstract: While often being the not very well liked stepchild of IT departments, legacy information systems are valuable assets for companies. After many years of development and maintenance, these systems often contain valuable business logic and implement business processes that are nowadays unknown even to the owner of the system. However, maintenance and further development is often costly and requires an increased effort compared to modern applications. Hence, developing sound strategies for gradually modernizing these applications and lowering the associated costs is of paramount importance. For carrying out such strategies, it is useful to understand why and how certain aspects of these systems are implemented. At itestra, we have collected architectural patterns in legacy information systems and use these to understand legacy information systems better and avoid mistakes in the analysis of behavior of such legacy systems. We present these patterns here in order to facilitate the decision-making process in modernization projects and increase their success probability.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

Dynamic and Scalable Real-time Analytics in Logistics - Combining Apache Storm with Complex Event Processing for Enabling New Business Models in Logistics

Authors:

Benjamin Gaunitz, Martin Roth and Bogdan Franczyk

Abstract: In this paper we present an approach for an information system which is capable of processing and analysing vast amounts of data. In addition to Big Data solutions we do not focus on ex post batch processing but on online stream processing. We use Apache Storm in combination with Complex Event Processing to provide a scalable and dynamic event-driven information system, providing logistics businesses with relevant information in real-time to increase their data and process transparency.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

Insights into Transforming a Linux Wireless Device Driver to Run on a Bare Machine

Authors:

William Agosto-Padilla, Ramesh Karne and Alexander Wijesinha

Abstract: Developing device drivers is often tedious and error-prone. Drivers for bare machine applications that run without an OS have been previously written by directly using specification documents. Transformation is an alternate approach that attempts to develop a bare machine driver by using existing code for an OS driver. We investigate the transformation of a Broadcom Linux 802.11n wireless device driver to a bare machine driver. As a first step towards understanding the transformation, we study the functions and OS dependencies of the Linux driver. The driver module is analyzed by examining its interaction with other modules, providing details of its key elements and code sizes, and by comparing code sizes with its counterpart Windows driver. We also discuss design issues that will be useful for developing device drivers that are independent of any operating system, kernel, or embedded system.

Paper Nr: 72
Title:

Functional Requirements Categorization - Grounded Theory Approach

Authors:

Richa Sharma and K. K. Biswas

Abstract: The ever-increasing complexity of information system is making the requirements analysis an intricate and challenging task. The challenge is further intensified in the absence of well-defined body of knowledge as to which requirements must be looked for. Though the requirements are broadly classified as functional and non-functional requirements; however, a special concern is required for functional requirements as the information system, envisioned for an organization, is expected to meet the functional behaviour of that organization. We have used Grounded Theory approach to explore the granular level of functional requirements analyzed during requirements analysis. Based on this qualitative study, we propose a classification scheme for functional requirements in this paper.

Posters
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

Effects of Geographical, Socio-cultural and Temporal Distances on Communication in Global Software Development during Requirements Change Management - A Pilot Study

Authors:

Arif Ali Khan, Jacky Keung, Shahid Hussain and Kwabena Ebo Bennin

Abstract: Trend of software development is changing rapidly most of the software development organizations are trying to globalize their activities throughout the world. This trend leads towards a phenomenon called Global Software Development (GSD).The main reason behind the software globalization is its various benefits. Besides these benefits, software organizations are facing various challenges. One of these challenges is communication which is considered a big challenge in GSD and it becomes more complicated during the Requirements Change Management (RCM) process due to three factors, they are Geographical, Socio-cultural and Temporal distances. This paper presents a framework which shows the effect of these factors on communication during RCM process in GSD. Communication is the core function of collaboration which allows information to be exchanged between the team members. A pilot study has been conducted in three GSD organizations. A quantitative research method has been used to collect data. The findings from the survey data show that these three factors have a strong negative impact on communication process in GSD.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Architectural Challenges in Migrating Plan-driven Projects to Agile

Authors:

Vinod Menon, Roopak Sinha and Stephen MacDonell

Abstract: Software development has steadily embraced agile software development methodology/method (ASDM) and has been moving away from the plan driven software development methodology (PDM) approaches like waterfall. Given the iterative nature of agile development, the integration of software architecture into the agile way has become challenging. This research identifies the challenges of having a robust architecture in projects already executed by plan driven methods and new projects likewise by conducting a literature review and a case study analysis. The ensuing analysis finds that there are three major areas: people, process and technology, in which these challenges could be mapped.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

FDMD: Feature-Driven Methodology Development

Authors:

Rezvan Mahdavi-Hezave and Raman Ramsin

Abstract: Situational Method Engineering (SME) is a branch of software engineering which helps develop bespoke methodologies to fit the specific characteristics of the software project at hand. As in software development, SME too involves rigorous Requirements Engineering (RE), so much so that if requirements elicitation and definition is mishandled in any way, methodology development will most likely fail as a result. In this paper, we propose a Feature-driven methodology for SME; in this SME methodology, the requirements of the target methodology are captured as Features. First introduced in the agile FDD (Feature-Driven Development) methodology, Features are fully object-oriented and provide all the benefits that the object-oriented paradigm has to offer. Due to the object-oriented nature of Features and the rest of its deliverables, our proposed Feature-Driven Methodology Development (FDMD) process is fully seamless; this also facilitates the development of tool support for the methodology which is produced by applying FDMD.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

Certification of IPavement Applications for Smart Cities - A Case Study

Authors:

Jesús Ramon Oviedo, Moisés Rodriguez and Mario Piattini

Abstract: The installation of Intelligent Pavement (IPavement) in cities highlights the obvious need for the development of software services that can be offered by this technology. These services should be developed in conformance with international quality standards such as ISO/IEC 25000, which make it possible to give assurance that the services must established quality requirements. This paper therefore presents the environment for the quality certification of the services developed for the IPavement, created by the authors. This environment is formed by an assessment process, a quality model, and set of assessment tools. The results of a case study carried out to evaluate the quality of a service developed for IPavement are also set out; this study has tested the practical application of the environment created and has proven the need to develop tools to assist in the evaluation of the quality IPavement services.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

M2K - An Approach for an Object-oriented Model of C Applications

Authors:

Ignacio Cassol and Gabriela Arévalo

Abstract: When analyzing legacy code, generating a high-level model of an application helps the developers understand how the application was structured and how the dependencies relate the different software entities. Based on useful properties that the object-oriented paradigm (and their supporting analysis tools) provide, such as UML models, we propose M2K as a methodology (supported by our own tool) that generates a high-level model from legacy C code and proposes differents refactorings. To understand how procedural-based applications were implemented is not a new problem in software reengineering, however our contribution is based on building automatically an object-oriented model and help the experts to define manually different refactorings that let the developer to improve the application. Besides a methodology and the supporting tool, we provide a summary of thirteen case studies based on small-scaled real projects implemented in C and we showed how the results validate our proposal.

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

Co-evolution Analysis for Software Product Lines

Authors:

Anissa Benlarabi, Amal Khtira and Bouchra El Asri

Abstract: The purpose of our approach is to study the co-evolution of the platform and the products of software product lines. Because the platform must be able to derive all the family products, products are not allowed to evolve independently from the plateform, thus the propagation of the products changes must be managed efficiently. Instead of focusing on the change impact analysis we propose an approach to compare the evolution histories of the products and the platform illustrated through evolutionary trees built using the biological technique cladistics. This comparison yields important results concerning the change propagation. In this paper, we introduce the use of cladistics for software product lines to build evolutionary trees for platform and products, then we elaborate a mathematical analysis to compare these trees, afterwards we validate this work through a case study (mobile media software product lines). We also provide the design of an automated tool.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

Building Multi-Robot System based on Five Capabilities Model

Authors:

Atef Gharbi, Dhouha Ben Noureddine and Nadhir Ben Halima

Abstract: Multi-Robot System (MRS) is considered as a particular form of Multi Agent System (MAS) by specifically addressing planning and social abilities. The design of autonomous robots includes the design of team behaviors constituted by several intelligent agents each one has to interact with the other autonomous robots. The problem faced is how to ensure a distributed planning through the cooperation of the distributed robotic agents. To do so, we propose to use the conept of five capabilities model which is based on Environment, Self, Planner, Competence and Communication. We illustrate our line of thought with a Benchmark Production System used as a running example to explain our contribution.

Paper Nr: 60
Title:

Requirements Engineering Aspects of a Geographically Distributed Architecture

Authors:

Maria Spichkova and Heinz Schmidt

Abstract: We present our ongoing work on requirements specification and analysis for the geographically distributed software and systems. Developing software and systems within/for different countries or states or even within/for different organisations means that the requirements to them can differ in each particular case. These aspects naturally impact on the software architecture and on the development process as a whole. The challenge is to deal with this diversity in a systematic way, avoiding contradictions and non-compliance. In this paper, we present a formal framework for the analysis of the requirements diversity, which comes from the differences in the regulations, laws and cultural aspects for different countries or organisations. The framework also provides the corresponding architectural view and the methods for requirements structuring and optimisation.